- VORTE 2012: The 7th International Workshop on Vocabularies, Ontologies and Rules for the Enterprise. September 10 - 11 2012, Beijing, China.
- First Interdisciplinary Summer School on Ontological Analysis , July 16 - 20 2012, Povo, Trento, Italy.
- FOIS 2012: 7th International Conference on Formal Ontology in Information Systems. July 24 - 27 2012, Graz, Austria.
- ISLA 2012: Indian School on Logic and it Applications. January, 9 - 20, 2012, Manipal, India.
- ILIKS final meeting November 28-30, 2011, Toulouse, France.
- 2011 Grand Challenge in Service Week, September 21-23, 2011, Cambridge, UK.
- Shapes 1.0 - The Shape of Things. Held in conjunction with CONTEXT '11. Karlsruhe, Germany, September 26-27, 2011.
- ECAP 7, Seventh European Conference of Analytic Philosophy. Milan, Italy 1-6 September 2011.
- Formal ontologies for engineering, a course at ESSLLI 2011, held by Stefano Borgo and Pawel Garbacz. Ljubljana, Slovenia, August 1-12, 2011.
- 5th Int. Workshop on Modular Ontologies (WoMO), held in conjunction with ESSLLI 2011. Ljubljana, Slovenia, August 8-12, 2011.
- 5th Workshop on Formal Ontologies Meet Industry (FOMI 2011), Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands, July 7th and 8th 2011.
- Le ontologie per l'organizzazione della conoscenza, La Sapienza University, Rome, Italy, May 11th, 2011.
- Semantic Valley - How to create
an ecosystem that creates innovations, Aula Magna, Faculty of Cognitive Science, University of Trento, Corso Bettini 84 - Rovereto, Italy. May 6th 2011, from 14:00 to 17:00.
- Ontology Summit 2011, Gaithersburg, Maryland, USA, April 18-19 2011.
- 5th International Workshop on Value Modeling and Business Ontology, Gent, February 7-8, 2011.
- Copenhagen Symposium on Approaches to the Lexicon, Copenhagen, Denmark, December 8-10, 2010.
- ACM-L 2010, Third International Workshop on Active Conceptual Modeling of Learning. Vancouver, Canada, November 1-4, 2010.
- Reuse and Adaption of Ontologies and Terminologies. Hosted by EKAW 2010 in Lisbon, Portugal, 11-15 October 2010.
- ECAP10: 8th Conference on Computing and Philosophy. Munich, Germany, October 4-6, 2010.
- OntoLex 2010, 6th Workshop on Ontologies and Lexical Resources, hosted by the 23rd Conference on Computational Linguistics. Beijing, China, August 21-22, 2010.
- Objects, Events, Qualities: An Introduction to Formal Ontological Distinctions in DOLCE. Advanced course at ESSLLI 2010, August 16-20, 2010, Copenhagen (slides are available here).
- Workshop on Theories of Information Dynamics and Interaction and their Application to Dialogue. Hosted by European Summer School on Logic, Language and Information - ESSLLI 2010. August 16-20 (ESSLLI 2nd week) 2010, Copenhagen.
- 1st Karlsruhe Summer School on Service Research. July 18-22, 2010, Karlsruhe, Germany.
- EIT Presentation Day. July 21, 2010, Povo, Trento, Italy.
- 20th Anniversary Meeting on Cognitive and Linguistic Aspects of Geographic Space, The Vespucci Initiative, July 4-10, 2010, Las Navas (Spain).
- EUROPEAN FORUM for INNOVATION (EFI) 2010: Empowering the Pan-European Community in a Competitive Global Environment. June 23-25, 2010, Trento (Italy).
- Quarto Convegno Italiano di Ontologia Analitica. June 17-18, 2010, Bergamo (Italy).
- 7th Extended Semantic Web conference (ESWC 2010), 30 May 03 June 2010, Heraklion (Greece).
- 7th Linguistic Resources and Evaluation Conference (LREC 2010), 17-23 May 2010, Valletta (Malta).
- FOIS 2010: 6th International Conference on Formal Ontology in Information Systems. Toronto, Canada, May 11-14, 2010.
- 4th Int. Workshop on Modular Ontologies (WoMO). Held in conjunction with FOIS 2010. Toronto, Canada, May 11 2010.
- 1st Workshop on the Multilingual Semantic Web - 19th International World Wide Web Conference (WWW2010). Raleigh (NC), USA, April 26-30, 2010.
- TMCE 2010: International Symposium Series on Tools and Methods of Competitive
Engineering. Ancona (Italy), April 12-16, 2010.
- Seminar on Foundations of Ontological Analysis and Conceptual Modeling, speaker: Nicola Guarino. University of Lausanne, March 29-31, 2010.
- Monumentum.doc, Labont Workshop - 11th Year. Torino University, Torino, Italy, January 11-12, 2010.
- 4th International Workshop on Value Modeling and Business Ontologies, Special Theme: "Ontological Foundations of Service Science". Amsterdam, The Netherlands, December 21-22, 2009.
- seManticValley: the Trentino development center
for content technologies. Trento (Italy), December 11, 2009.
- AI*IA 2009: XIth International Conference of the Italian Association for Artificial Intelligence. Reggio Emilia (Italy), December 9-12, 2009.
- Sixth Workshop on the Language-Neutral Ontology. Hankuk University, Seoul, Korea. November 27-28, 2009.
- Information Systems in Organizations. University of Porto, Portugal. October, 26th, 2009.
- Workshop on Trust, Advice, and Reputation. Toulouse, (France). October 22-24, 2009 .
- ENSO Conference of the
European Network on Social Ontology. University of Konstanz, Germany. October 16-17, 2009.
- FOMI 2009: 4th Workshop on Formal Ontologies Meet Industry. Padova University (Vicenza), Italy. September 2nd 2009.
- ESSLLI: 21st European Summer School in Logic, Language and Information. Bordeaux (France). July, 20-31 2009.
- IJCAI 09: Twenty-First International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence . Pasadena - California (USA) July, 11-17 2009.
- IR-KR2009: Workshop on Identity and Reference in web-based Knowledge Representation at IJCAI-09. Pasadena - California (USA) July, 11-13 2009.
- Ontolog Telecon. Announcing the International Association for Ontology and its Applications
- ESWC 2009: 6th Annual European Semantic Web Conference. Heraklion - Crete (Greece), 31 May - 4 June 2009.
- LE COSE E LE PAROLE: Nuovi modelli di rappresentazione dei prodotti e delle loro funzioni. SEMINARIO DI STUDI - PISA.
- Dagstuhl Workshop on Normative MultiAgent Systems. Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz Center for Informatics (Germany), 15-20 March 2009.
- ILIKS Annual Meeting, Toulouse (France), 1-2 December 2008.
- FOIS 2008: 5th International Conference on Formal Ontology in Information Systems. Saarbrücken (Germany), October 31st - November 3rd, 2008.
- WONTO'2008: 3RD WORKSHOP ON ONTOLOGIES AND THEIR APPLICATIONS. 26-30 October 2008. Salvador, BA, Brazil.
- EKAW 2008: 16th International Conference on Knowledge Engineering and Knowledge Management "Knowledge Patterns". 29th September - 3rd October 2008. Acitrezza, Catania (Italy).
- STEP2008: SYMPOSIUM ON SEMANTICS IN SYSTEMS FOR TEXT PROCESSING. Venice, Italy, September 22-24, 2008.
2008: 11th International Conference on Principles of Knowledge Representation and Reasoning. Sydney, Australia, September 16-19, 2008.
- NLP 2008: Natural Language Processing 2008. Cagliari, Italy, September 11th, 2008.
- Ontology Research Seminar in Brasil, Departamento de Ciência da Informação - Niterói. Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, August 11-12, 2008.
2008, Freie and Hansestadt Hamburg (Germany), 4-15 August 2008.
- ESSCS - 25th Annual Workshop 2008, Genoa, Italy, 2-4 July 2008.
- Tecnologie e linguaggi per la gestione della conoscenza nelle imprese e nelle reti. Applicazioni, criticità, prospettive, Aula Magna del Dipartimento di Tecnica e Gestione dei Sistemi Industriali, Università di Padova, sede di Vicenza, 12/06/2008.
- FOMI 2008: Formal Ontologies Meet Industry, Torino (Italy), 5-6 June 2008.
- LREC2008: 6th INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON LANGUAGE RESOURCES AND EVALUATION, Marrakech (Morocco), 26 May - 1 June, 2008.
- Interdisciplinary Ontology Conference (InterOntology08), Tokyo (Japan), February 26-27, 2008.
2007 Annual Meeting Programme, Trento (Italy), 20-21 December 2007.
- LogKCA-07 - ILCLI International Workshop on Logic and Philosophy of Knowledge, Communication and Action, Donostia, 28-30 November 2007.
- Italian IA Summit 2007: Secondo Summit Italiano di Architettura dell'Informazione, Trento (Italy), November 16-17, 2007.
- 1st International WORKSHOP on Ontologies and Information Systems for the Semantic Web (ONISW 2007), Auckland (New Zealand), November 5-9, 2007.
- 11th IEEE International EDOC Conference (EDOC 2007), Annapolis, Maryland, USA. October 15, 2007.
- Symposion on Evolution of Semantic Systems, Jena (Germany), October 5-6, 2007.
- 1st International Conference on Methodologies, Technologies and Tools enabling e-Government (MeTTeG07), Rome (Italy), September 27-28, 2007.
- Automated Mapping Facilities Management (AMFM) - Infrastrutture di Dati Territoriali: Teoria e pratica dopo l'approvazione della direttiva INSPIRE, Rome (Italy), September 19, 2007.
- International Conference on Concept Types and Frames in Language, Cognition, and Science, Düsseldorf (Germany), August 20-22, 2007.
- July, 30-31, 2007: Workshop Roles '07 - Roles and Relationships in OO Programming, Multiagent systems and Ontologies: 2nd Workshop on Roles and Relationships in
Object Oriented Programming, Multiagent Systems, and Ontologies. Workshop co-located with ECOOP 2007, Berlin (Germany).
- June, 11-15, 2007: Week on Geospatial Ontology at the 5th Vespucci Summer Institute on Geographic Information Science , Fiesole (Italy).
- December 14-15, 2006, Trento (Italy): FOMI 2006 - Formal Ontologies Meet
- November 30 - December 01, 2006, Trento (Italy): Annual meeting of the Interdisciplinary Laboratory on Interactive Knowledge Systems. (ILIKS)
- November 29, 2006, Rome (Italy): Convegno: La dimensione semantica dell'Information Technology.
- November 9-11, 2006, Baltimore (USA):
FOIS-2006, Fourth FOIS conference.
- July 31 - August 11, 2006, Málaga, Spain:
ESSLLI 2006, workshop on Formal Ontologies for Communicating Agents.
- June 2006, Lake District (UK):
Tenth International Conference on Principles of Knowledge Representation and Reasoning (KR2006)
- May 27, 2006, Genoa, Italy: OntoLex 2006. In association with 5th International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation, LREC 2006 (main conference: May 24-25-26, 2006).
- May 24-26, 2006, Genoa, Italy:
LREC 2006 - 5th Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation
(Workshops and Tutorials: 22-23 and 27-28 May 2006). The fifth international conference on Language Resources and Evaluation, LREC 2006, is organised by ELRA in cooperation with a wide range of international associations and organisations.
- April 11, 2006, Pisa, Italy: "Formalizzare i(l) Web: comunità di pensiero, invarianti semantiche e applicazioni". A seminar by Aldo Gangemi at Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa.
- April 7, 2006, Hamburg: "Foundational Ontologies for Humanities - the Role of Language and Cognition". Keynote talk by Nicola Guarino at the International Worskhop on Ontology Based Modelling in the Humanities.
- March 18, 2006, Amphithéâtre Guizot (Sorbonne) Paris, France: Ontologie Formelle et Sémantique Formelle by Laure Vieu at Sémantique, web sémantique et ontologies
Journée préparée et coordonnée par Jean-Pierre DESCLES.
- March 10-17, 2006, Guenne at Lake Moehne, Germany: Interdisciplinary College (IK2006).
- February, 10, 2006, Vaasa, Finland: EAFT and NORDTERM, Workshop on Terminology, Concept Modeling and Ontology: Which Approach for Which Problem?
- December 2005, Covilhã, Portugal:
BAOSW - Building and Applying Ontologies for the Semantic Web,
held in conjunction with 12th Portuguese Conference on Artificial Intelligence sponsored by APPIA, the Portuguese Association of AI.
- December 15, 2005, Bolzano, Italy: Computer Science and IT with/for Biology.
- December 1-2, 2005, Saarland University, Germany: A Workshop on Quantities, Numbers, and Parts.
- November 29-30, 2005, Mexico City, Mexico: First International Conference on Geospatial Semantics (GeoS 2005)
- November 17-18, 2005, Trieste, Italy: The Trieste Symposium on Perception and Cognition.
- November 10-11, 2005, Aveiro, Portugal: 6th International Symposium on Biological and Medical Data Analysis, ISBMDA 2005.
- November 3-6, 2005, Hyatt Crystal City in Arlington, Virginia U.S.A.: 2005 AAAI Fall Symposium - Roles, an interdisciplinary perspective.
- October 31 - November 4, 2005, Larnaca, Cyprus:
WORM 2005: The 3rd International Workshop on Regulatory Ontologies.
- October 28-29, 2005, Venezia, Italy:
(E,W)3. Etica di Internet
- October 24-28, 2005, Klagenfurt, Austria:
24th Intl. Conference on Conceptual Modeling (ER 2005)
- October 14, 2005, Jeju Island, South Korea:
OntoLex 2005: Ontologies and Lexical Resources, IJCNLP-05 Workshop.
- October 6-7, 2005, Munich, Germany:
Semantic Web Days.
- September 26-27, 2005 - Polo Tecnologico (Trento): ILIKS Inauguration.
- September 20-23, 2005. Milano, Italy: AIIA 2005: 9th Congress of the Italian Association for Artificial Intelligence.
- September 20, 2005, Enschede, The Netherlands: International EDOC Workshop on VOCABULARIES, ONTOLOGIES AND RULES FOR THE ENTERPRISE (VORTE 2005). As part of the EDOC 2005,
The 9th International IEEE Enterprise Distributed Object Computing Conference: 19-23 September 2005, Enschede, The Netherlands.
- September 11-14, 2005, Koblenz, Germany:
FOnt 2005 - Foundational Aspects of Ontologies.
A Workshop at the 28th German Conference on Artificial Intelligence, KI2005.
- August 8-19, 2005, Edinburgh, Scotland, UK: ESSLLI.
- Formal Ontology for Semanticists, a course at the 17th European Summer School in Logic, Language and Information
- July 25 or 26, 2005, Edinburgh, Scotland, UK:
PIA 2005 - Working on New technologies for Personalized Information Acces
- July 10-15, 2005, Riva del Garda (TN), Italy:
9th Intl. Pragmatics Conference
- June, 17, 2005, Rome, Italy:
(E,W)3. Etica di Internet
- June 15-17, 2005, Alicante, Spain:
- June, 13-17, 2005, Porto, Portugal:
- June, 9-10, 2005, Lake of Garda, Verona, Italy:
Formal Ontologies Meet Industry (F.O.M.I.)
- June, 6-11, 2005, Bologna, Italy:
ICAIL 2005 - Tenth International Conference on ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE and LAW
- June, 6, 2005, Bologna, Italy:
LOAIT Workshop - Legal Ontologies and Artificial Intelligence Techniques
- May 22-24, 2005, Corfu, Greece:
- The 7th International Symposium on Logical Formalizations of Commonsense Reasoning
- April 29 - May 2, 2005, Rome, Italy:
Ontology and Biomedical Informatics
- February 3-5, 2005, Trento, Italy:
2nd Workshop organized by the MEANING Project
- Events at LOA (Trento - Roma, Italy), 2004
- December 16-18, 2004, Pavia, Italy:
Model Based Reasoning (MBR04)
- December 10, 2004, Aconca, Italy:
1st Italian Semantic Web Workshop
- November, 30 - December 1, 2004, Padova, Italy:
Convegno Nazionale GSCP, Comunicazione Parlata e Manifestazione delle Emozioni
- November 8, 2004, Hiroshima, Japan:
Meaning Coordination and Negotiation
held in conjunction with
3rd International Semantic Web Conference (ISWC-2004)
- November 7-11, 2004, Hiroshima, Japan:
Third International Semantic Web Conference
- November 4-6, 2004, Torino, Italy:
Third International Conference on Formal Ontology in Information Systems (FOIS 2004)
- October 25-29, 2004, Larnaca, Cyprus:
The second International Workshop on
Regulatory Ontologies (WORM 2004)
- October 13-15, 2004, Certosa di Pontignano, Siena, Italy: Conference on Collective Intentionality IV
- October 8, 2004, Whittlebury Hall, Northamptonshire, UK: EKAW 2004: Workshop on Core Ontologies
- October 5-8, 2004, Whittlebury Hall, Northamptonshire, UK:
14th International Conference on
Knowledge Engineering and Knowledge Management
- October 6, 2004, Laboratorio di Ontologia Applicata, Trento: Seminar of Marco Cruciani: Mental States and Action
- September 28, 2004, Paris, France: Seminaire: Les après-midi "Connaissances, Langue et Informatique" at University Paris-Nord
- September 28, 2004, São Luis, Maranhão, Brazil: Workshop On Ontologies And Their Applications
- August 30, 2004, Toronto, Canada: IIWeb 2004, Workshop on Information Integration on the Web
held in conjunction with
- August 24-27, 2004, Valencia, Spain:
6th European Conference on Artificial Intelligence (ECAI 2004)
- August 22-27, 2004, Toulouse, France: First IFIP Conference on
Artificial Intelligence Applications and Innovations (AIAI 2004)
- July 19-24, 2004: Cercedilla, Spain: Second European Summer School on Ontological Engineering and the Semantic Web (SSSW-2004)
- July 8-11, 2004: Minor Entities
A Philosophical Workshop in Geneva -
Organized by Roberto Casati, Kevin Mulligan and Achille Varzi
Download pdf doc
- July 4-6, 2004: Balatonfured, Lake Balaton, Hungary Ontology Workshop held as part of the SemanticMining Summer School
- June 23-25, 2004, Manchester, UK: Ninth International Conference on the Applications of Natural Language to Information Systems (NLDB 2004)
- June 22, 2004, Trento, Italy: Meeting on Social Roles
- June 2-5, 2004, Whistler, Canada:
Ninth International Conference on the Principles of Knowledge Representation and Reasoning (KR-2004)
- June 1, 2004, Whistler, Canada:
First International Workshop on
Formal Biomedical Knowledge Representation (KR-MED 2004),
Collocated with KR 2004
- May 29, 2004, Centro Cultural de Belem, Lisbon, Portugal:
OntoLex 2004, Ontologies and Lexical Resources
in Distributed Environments
- May 29, 2004, 09:30-17:30, University of Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany: The Formal Architecture of the Gene Ontology,
An Informal Workshop.
- April 29-30, 2004, Dipartimento di Filosofia - Università di Padova
SIFA - Società italiana di filosofia analitica
Proposizioni. Aspetti semantici ed ontologici
Archivio Antico del Palazzo del Bo', Università di Padova
via 8 Febbraio, 2 - Padova
- March 11, 2004, 11:00: "Towards linguistic ontologies in CASL"
by John Bateman, Klaus Lüttich, Till Mossakowski,
University of Bremen, Germany,
Cooperative Research Center / Sonderforschungsbereich
SFB/TR8: Spatial Cognition
- Lecture notes of Achille Varzi's recent short course on Modal Logic can be found
- February 3, 2004, 11:00, Trento: "Le cose senza corpo", a seminar by Alessandro Lancieri
- December 9, 2003, 11:00:
- Wednesday November 19, 2003 - Polo Tecnologico, via Solteri 38, Trento:
Towards a Joint European Laboratory on
Interacting Knowledge Systems,
- November 6, 2003, Rome, Italy: Knowledge Management 2002, sesta edizione del forum sulla
gestione della conoscenza nelle organizzazioni.
November 3-7, 2003, Catania, Italy:
Ontologies, Databases, and applications of
Semantics for Large Scale Information Systems (ODBASE)
- October 20-23, 2003, Sanibel Island, Florida, USA:
Human Language Technology for the Semantic Web and Web Services
- October13-16, 2003, Chicago, Illinois, USA:
22nd International Conference on Conceptual Modeling.
- October 8, 2003, Rome, Italy:
Workshop on Ontologies in Medicine,
jointly organized by CNR-ISTC, Rome and
- September 26, 2003 at 11:00 a.m., Trento, Italy: seminar on " Combining Salience and Ontological Knowledge for Anaphora Resolution", by Massimo Poesio (University of Essex).
- September 23-26, 2003, Pisa, Italy:
8th National Congress
of Associazione Italiana per l'Intelligenza Artificiale (AI*IA 2003).
- A COSIT pre-conference workshop on Fundamental Issues on Spatial and
Geographic Ontologies will take place on Sept 23 organized by
Brandon Bennett (University of Leeds) and Pierre Grenon (University
of Leipzig). For more information on the workshop please consult
- September 23, 2003, Pisa, Italy: Workshop on Natural Language within the 8th AI*IA Congress:
Temi e prospettive di ricerca per l'Elaborazione del Linguaggio Naturale in Italia .
- September 15-18, 2003, Hamburg, Germany: 26th German Conference on
Reference Ontologies vs. Applications Ontologies
- September 4-6, 2003, Toulouse, France: ACL-SIGSEM Workshop on
"The Linguistic Dimensions of Prepositions and
their Use in Computational Linguistics Formalisms and Applications."
- July 21-26, 2003, Cercedilla, near Madrid, Spain:
Summer School: Ontological Engineering and the Semantic Web
- July 23, 2003 (16:00) at LOA, Trento:
"Local Models Semantics: a Semantics for Contextual Reasoning" by Chiara Ghidini, ITC-IRST. Abstract
- A series of seminars by Pawel Garbacz, Catholic University of Lublin, Poland, was held at LOA-Trento
- July 2, 2003: The Ontology of Roman Ingarden - Part I
- July 3, 2003: The Ontology of Roman Ingarden - Part II
- July 10, 2003: A functionalist theory of artifacts
- June 10, 2003, Rome, Italy:
Verso il Semantic Web,
La tappa italiana del W3C Semantic Tour"
- June 16-17, 2003, Florence, Italy: Workshop on
"Semantic Web for scientific and cultural organisations: results of some early experiments"
- June 3, 2003, 15:00, Trento: "Counterpart Theory and Modal Mereology", by Achille Varzi,
Dept. of Philosophy,
Columbia University (USA).
- May 27, 2003 - 11:00, Trento:
Towards an ontological foundation for UML conceptual models by
Giancarlo Guizzardi, University of Twente, Netherlands.
- May 21, 2003 - 11:00, Trento: "Le Forme del Desiderare" by Andrea Borghini, Columbia University, USA.
- May 20-24, 2003, Budapest, HUNGARY:
The Twelfth International World Wide Web Conference (www2003)
- May 20, 2003 - 11:00, Trento: "Parti e Partecipanti" by
Andrea Borghini, Columbia University, USA.
- April 28, May 12, May 26, 2003, Trento: A Short Course on Modal Logic
by Achille Varzi, Dept. of Philosophy, Columbia University
- May 6, 2003, 11:00, Trento: Seminar on
by Steve H. Simon, PhD.
- May 5, 2003, 14:30, Trento: Seminar on "Some philosophical perspectives on the issues of the ontology of the mental"
by Roberta Ferrario.
- May 5, 2003, 11:00, Trento: Seminar on
"Reductive Physicalism, Causal Deviance and Modulated Movement"
by Steve H. Simon, PhD.
- April 11, 2003, Trento: Seminar on
"Note per una tassonomia ontologica"
by Salvatore I. D'Agostino.
- April 2, 2003, Trento (Sala Mozart, Palazzo Todeschi, via Tartarotti 7, ore 13.00):
prof. Michele Miozzo, della Columbia University, conferenza dal titolo:
"COSA CONTIENE IL LESSICO ?".
- March 31- April 1, 2003, Strasbourg, France:
TIA2003:5th Meeting on Terminology and Artificial Intelligence
- March 31, 2003, Trento: Seminar on
"Dall'ontologia alla metafisica"
by Achille Varzi,
- March 26-27, 2003, Tilburg, Netherlands:
The Future of the Web. Conditions, Perspectives and Consequences of the Semantic Web
- March 25, 2003, Trento:Seminar on
"Where Ontology Affects Information Systems" by Roland Kaschek,
Massey University, New Zealand
- December 9-11, 2002,
Ontology of Social Interaction